How to Grow Grass Effectively by Learning How to Plant Grass Seeds Quickly

Knowing how to grow grass effectively would mean going over factors like soil condition, seed variety and water availability. These are very important considerations before learning how to plant grass seeds the quickest possible way.

There are a lot of reasons why most homeowners now want to learn how to grow grass. One reason is the natural beauty it can project ensuring healthy looking lawns. Before, what people only know to plant grass seed the slow way. This is done by initially prepping the ground using a rake before putting down a slim layer or top soil. Afterwards, grass seeds are sprinkled before another layer of top soil is placed.

There are various ways on how to grow grass quickly. In one method, you would need materials like 2 to 3 medium bags (20 lbs.) of top soil (even cheap ones are okay), 5 pounds of grass seeds, a shovel and a garden cart or wheelbarrow as well as a hose/sprinkler and rake (optional).

Step 1 Pour one or two bags of top soil into the wheel barrow. Then, break it a little to make it somewhat loose. As a tip you can put one bag inside the wheel barrel and use the shovel by bringing it down on one end of the bag before lifting it and allowing the top soil to tumble out.

Step 2 For every bag of top soil used, get a handful of grass seeds then, throw it inside the wheel barrel.

Step 3 Use the shovel and mix the seeds and the soil together. Its like kneading bread while mixing in nuts or raisins. Make sure the soil is still fairly loose so that its easier to spread.

Step 4 Shovel out your soil mixture. Then, sprinkle it lightly on your bare spot. You can hold the shovel using your left hand and then use your right hand to twist the shovel (for the soil to shimmy off the end). Keep in mind that you only need a thin layer of soil as well as seed mixture.

Step 5 When youve distributed all the soil and the seed mixture, set up a sprinkler so that you can water that spot from time to time.

With this method, the seed and soil mixture can grow grass quickly. This is since you are putting down some rich soil together with the seeds all throughout and not just underneath or on top of it. However, you also need to understand that therell also be bad times when you plant grass seeds. There are types of grass that can be pretty hard and will even grow without much trouble, especially if the conditions are just right.

The above-mentioned method can effectively grow grass whether in large or small areas. Many find it even easier to just rake over a bare spot and loosen up existing soil before throwing in a quick layer of seed.

How and when to hire a power plant

Temporary power plants are essential energy solutions for power grids or communities that are suffering from down time. They can be set up to help stabilise towns or industries that are having problems with their local grid and provide much needed back up power until a permanent solution has been reached.

When a community or industry’s energy demands exceeds the capacities of their current plant, a temporary solution is a good way to ensure energy is efficiently provided while a long term strategy is put in place. It’s the perfect, non permanent way to supplement a grid in a large scale and without running up large, unnecessary bills from numerous small solutions trying to do the same thing.

A temporary power plant also offers the ability to implement seasonal peak shaving. This is when a temporary or additional source of power is used during busy or peak seasons to stabilise a supply that might otherwise struggle under demand. It is often a good and growing solution in countries that experience extreme temperatures or in hydro dependent countries that suffer from a lack of rainfall. It is used to supplement renewable energy sources that are not able to provide the energy needed during times of drought or low wind speeds.

In these tough conditions a temporary solution can be used to help to prevent outages, and often for only a few hours a day during peak seasons. What’s more, because it is only used during peak times, it doesn’t accrue costs throughout the year. Demand is also increasingly on the up due to the number of governments who are attempting to introduce renewable power solutions. These typically dependent on natural resources such as wind or rain and can therefore suffer teething problems best alleviated with some temporary help.

Another application for a temporary power plant is as way to continue to provide an uninterrupted power supply during breakdowns or scheduled maintenance. The ease and speed with which a plant can be set up and switched on can minimise down time and ensure inconvenient blackouts are avoided. They are also often called into service to provide power for large construction sites or projects that need more energy than can be provided by small-scale generators.

When choosing the best temporary power plant to suit your needs, due to the nature of most applications, you’re normally going to need a company that is able to respond and provide you with a power plant hire solution rapidly. Flexibility is another major factor to consider when choosing a supplier. You want to be sure that the installed capacity of a rental package can be increased or decreased incrementally and that any required equipment can be rented on a short or long-term basis.

It’s also essential that you choose a temporary power plant provider that will offer you an initial assessment of need to service back-up site as this can help you ensure you are able to choose the best solution for your power needs.

Top 5 Largest Solar Power Plants in the World

The Olmedilla Photovoltaic (PV) Park in Spain is the largest Solar Power plant in the world. Similarly the other largest solar PV plants are also located in Europe.

The demand for Solar Power in the United States is swelling even with an economic recession in the background. The main reasons that can be attributed to this growth are:

Financial incentives from government
Simplification of credit accessibility
Improvement in recognition of environmental benefits in the public

Even though the largest Solar Power plants are not in the US, but the under-construction projects in New Mexico and California are expected to balance out the dominance of Europe in a few years.

Worlds Largest Solar Plants

1. Olmedilla Photovoltaic (PV) Park in Spain

This solar plant has more than 160,000 flat solar PV panels that generate over 60 MW of electricity in a day. This plant was constructed within 15 months at a staggering cost of $530 million. The panels used are of the conventional type, made from silicon, expensive and heavy.

2. Puertollano PV Park in Spain

The Puertollano solar plant generates around 50 MW of Solar Power in a day. It produces enough power to meet the electricity requirement of 39,000 average households. And, the energy generated by it in 25 years would offset more than 2 million tons of carbon dioxide.

3. Moura PV Power Station in Portugal

The Moura solar plant was built at a cost of 250 million in two phases. It generates 46 MW of electricity on a good sunny day with its more than 375,000 panels. The plant is spread across an area of more than 320 acres and produces 88 Giga-Watt Hour of electricity in a year.

4. Waldpolenz Solar Park in Germany

This solar plant is the largest thin-film solar plant in the world. It is constructed in a military air base and has a total Solar Power generation capacity of 40 MW. The plant has more than 0.55 million thin-film panels that generate around 40,000 MWh of power in a year. It is built at a total investment of around 130 million.

5. Arnedo Solar Plant in Spain

The fifth largest Solar Power plant in the world is the Arnedo plant that has an annually electricity generation capacity of 34 GWh. It can power more than 12,000 average-sized households and offset 375,000 tons of carbon dioxide during its lifetime.

This plant is spread across 70 Hectares and has more than 170,000 solar panels. It was built at an investment of 180 million and currently it is meeting 62% of the electricity requirement of La Rioja, a wine producing region in Spain.

Plants in Profile The Dracaena Species

The introduction of office plants into modern office buildings has grown significantly in recent years with many companies employing the services of professional office plant and office plant maintenance suppliers. Whilst most interior landscaping companies will provide advice and assistance when it comes to picking the right plants for your office, is may also be useful to try and understand a little more about the types of plants you may soon have in your offices.

The Dracaena species are a very important group of plants when it comes to making business premises green in both an environmental and aesthetical manner. There are approximately 40 different types or sub-species of Dracaena although only around 8 of these are typically used indoors. Due to their versatile nature the Dracaena species have become very popular within interior landscaping and are amongst the top ten most popular office plants to date.

One reason for the Dracaenas increased popularity is that most Dracaena sub-species are capable of surviving in dimly lit office environments. The Dracaena family as a whole have also been credited for their ability to help reduce or remove the potentially harmful toxic gases or Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) that pollute indoor environments.

During the research for his book “Eco Friendly House Plants” (1996) Dr. Bill Wolverton found that members of the Dracaena family were in fact among the most useful home and indoor office plants when it came to reducing the levels of indoor VOCs. Among the plants tested one plant in particular, the Dracaena Janet Craig, proved to be excellent for actively removing trichloroethylene from the air.

The Dracaena Janet Craig is a beautiful office plant with wide dark green foliage and can make a perfect addition to any contemporary office building. The Dracaena Janet Craigs ability to survive and grow in low light and dry conditions is perhaps the reason why it is now one of, if not the, most popular Dracaena plants for offices.

Like its older sister the Dracaena Compacta is a very robust and can tolerate dimly lit environments. The Compacta is a slow growing plant and often looks very architectural making it an ideal option for reception areas or modern office areas where design and architecture are integral to the style and finish of the building. Another two members of the Dracaena family that do their bit for office plants everywhere are the Dracaena Marginata and the Dracaena Massangeana.

Perhaps the most impressive and colourful of the family is the Marginata which has a distinct red or purple coloured stripe around the edge of its leaves. Sometimes referred to as the Madagascan Dragon Tree or Red-Edge Dracaena, the Marginata is a popular choice when it comes to office plants as it is particularly good at removing levels of formaldehyde indoors.

The Dracaena Massangeana is less tolerate to colder climates but more than compensates for this through its wonderful yellow and green coloured foliage. Like the Dracaena Janet Craig this office plant is very effective when it comes to the removal of toxins that can be found in indoor climates.

Climbing Plants A Gardening Solution

One glance through a gardening magazine, and we are showered with images of pristine gardens, beautifully appointed with hundreds of varieties of plants, trees, and shrubs. While many of us aspire to have yards as beautiful as those in a magazine, few of us have the time or resources to achieve such perfection. However, with a little work and some good planning, even those of us with the blackest of thumbs will feel good about our efforts in the garden.

When reviewing your outdoor space, try to identify those areas that you’re not very happy with. What do you want to change about them? Do you need some additional flowers or other plants? Perhaps the space doesn’t feel balanced? Climbing plants may be just the answer you are looking for to solve a variety of common problems in outdoor areas.

Many plants, both annual and perennial, fall into the category of climbing plants. The more common climbers are clematis, morning glory, ivy, and honeysuckle. However, many plants that spread along the ground like creeping phlox and periwinkle can provide coverage for unsightly spaces in your outdoor area, as well.

Climbing plants can be used to solve a myriad of problems in your outdoor spaces. For example, do you have something unsightly that you need to cover, such as a garage wall, tree stump, or electrical meter? Use climbing plants to cover it up! They not only change the view you are seeing, but they can also provide color and fragrance to an area. Consider putting up a trellis on the side of your shed to soften it up with a burst of color and fragrance. Climbers can also provide coverage of retaining walls and fences with little effort.

While climbing plants can be trained to climb a trellis or wall, they can also be planted in a pot and allowed to cascade downward, or used as a groundcover. If you have some areas of the garden where bare soil is showing, consider using a vine or other groundcover plant to hide those bare spots.

Lack of privacy is another major issue that homeowners commonly cite when asked why they dislike their yards or gardens. Perhaps you have neighbors that are a little too close? A trellis, arbor, or pergolas is a great solution to this problem. Climbing plants will easily climb and cover these structures, providing privacy and beauty to your yard. Pergolas and arbors can also be used over pathways or gates, or to mark a transition from front yard or side yard into a backyard. In all of these places, consider planting a climbing vine at the base of the structure. Within a few months, you’ll have a stunning focal point for your yard.

Climbing plants are usually pretty self-sufficient and require little care to grow. Of course, there are the basic needs like sun and water. You might also want to be aware of the soil type or soil pH level that the plant requires, though with climbers this is usually a less important consideration. Obviously, the most important thing to consider when planting a climber is providing some support structure upon which it can grow. When allowing climbers to grow near buildings, it’s important to keep a close eye on the plant so it doesn’t get out of control. Some very vigorous climbers can damage homes, garages, or barns when allowed to grow unchecked.

Planting, Harvesting And Replanting Lemongrass

Lemongrass, sweet basil, spicy basil and other herbs were growing wild all years round in Northeastern Thailand where I grew up . My grand-father planted mango trees, papaya trees, tamarind tree, giant bamboo tree and other countless trees everywhere. I remembered running out to collect ripped mangoes that had been knocked down by the wind just before the heavy rain. Other kids in the neighborhood also joined in with big buckets in their hands. Nobody cared who took them, they were plenty for everyone. One of my roles as a young child was to help picking and finding whatever herbs my mother told me to pick before she did her cooking. Lemongrass and kaffir lime leaves to make curry paste or spicy basil for stir-fry spicy chicken. I would ran off to the wood behind the house and came back handful with herbs for my mom. Sometimes, she complained that I was little too rough with those herbs because I bruised them. But most of the time, she was pleased. Those were good memories and I had no idea that I would miss such things as picking herbs. One of my vivid memories of lemongrass was that I used to bathe outdoor from a huge clay water container which stood next to lemongrass bush. The bush was there sucking in all the soapy water running off my body. It survived the alkaline water!

In cold climate areas such as Northern USA, lemongrass can be grown outdoor in Spring with the rest of herbs and plants in the garden or as decorative plant itself. I usually plant my lemongrass outside in the garden with my vegetables. These day, you can pretty much buy lemongrass from most of the nurseries. They usually sell in a small pot with one lemon stalk per pot. You’ll only need one plant or two to get started. You’ll be amazed how many stalks they will reproduce by the end of the Summer. Lemongrass prefers well drained soil and good sun light. Give it some water when ever you water your garden. If you plant it indoor,you could get by with watering it every 3-4 days. Lemongrass is an easy plant to plant, after all they don’t call it “grass” for nothing. It doesn’t require much care and it is disease resistance as well. Plant Lemongrass in Spring after frost and by mid Summer, you’ll have lemongrass ready for cooking.

I keep my lemongrass in the freezer and use it all year round. I do this by harvesting lemongrass at the end of each Fall. I would dig out the whole plant which by this time, I should have a whole big bunch of healthy looking lemongrass stalks. I would then leave about five stalks with roots attached, chop of the leaves and plant them in a pot indoor. This would be used as my starter for up coming Spring. I then would clean up the rest of the stalks by cutting off the roots, trimming off all the leaves and peeling a layer or two of the stalks leaving nice and clean white and light green part. I prefer slicing them in little pieces and pack them in zip lock bag. I use lemongrass for soup,curry and stir fry. If you like lemongrass tea, you can also save those leaves that you trim off from the stalks. Chop them up in little pieces and let them air dry. Store it in a ziplock bag or a jar and use it for making lemon grass tea which is a very good relaxant, by the way.

Now, the Spring is not too far away. My Lemongrass plants are sitting in the pot waiting to be replant again. Look like I will have many lemongrass bushes to harvest next fall.

Ratcha Chambers is a stay-at-home-mother of twin girls. Visit her knitting website at; www.to-knit-knitting-stitches.com

and her blog at: Asia Mom Blog

Tips For Watering Flowers And Plants In The Summertime

If you have a garden or yard, then you probably know that your plants need a little more help during the summer heat. In many cases, the best way to keep your garden healthy is to water the plants so that they are getting the moisture they need to grow. However, if you do not water your plants properly, you might find your garden dead rather quickly. Use the following tips to water you flowers and plants in the best way possible.

Tip #1: Regulate the watering.

One of the most common mistakes people make is to turn their sprinkler systems on a timer, which takes the guesswork out of watering. However, this is generally a bad idea, since it can lead to over-watering. Why? Well, it might rain some times, making the ground already saturated. Your water will just add to the problem. You should take every day as it comes. If your plants need water, water them, but if they do not, let the natural water in the environment take care of the situation. Using a timer might be easy, but it is generally not an effective method for watering your plants.

Remember, a timer can be effective if you are going away on vacation. During the summer months, many people like to take time off, and if you are leaving for vacation, set up a sprinkler system on a timer so that you can be sure your plants get the water they need while you are away.

Tip #2: Know your plants.

How much water does your rose bush need to survive and thrive? How much does your lawn need? How much does your lilac bush need? Every plant is completely different. You would not water a cactus on the same schedules as you would water a patch of grass, right? Well, although the differences might not be quite as drastic, knowing your plants allows you to make sure that each gets the proper amount of water during the summer. You can do research online or talk to your local garden center professional to determine how much water your plants need. With a bit of preparation and planning you can take steps to ensure that your flowers and plants will be properly watered and healthy.

Tip #3: Create a drainage system in your garden.

If you have a good drainage system in your garden, using good planting patterns, slopes, and runoff ditches, the plants will not run the risk of being waterlogged. This is especially important if some plants in your garden need more water than others. A good drainage system is actually pretty easy to install in your garden, and it should not cost too much extra money.

Tip #4: Prune your plants.

What does pruning have to do with watering? Well, when you prune plants, you are getting rid of dead leaves as well as excessive growth. It is that excessive growth that should worry you. A plant needs less water when it is the correct size. If it gets too big, it will demand more water and the plant will not be as healthy. Make sure that you prune each plant carefully, especially if you want the biggest and best blooms.

Water treatment Plant Equipments bring sparkling clean water for industrial use

A large chunk of operational budget gets splurged in arranging water for industrial use. As a result, companies are looking for effective and useful methods of reusing and recycling water by spending minimum money. Highly efficient Water treatment Plant Equipments make it practically possible. There is not much investment required to install RO plants that can convert large quantities of unusable water into sparklingly clean, usable water.

Industrial RO: The process

Reverse Osmosis or RO is a highly effective method of making the water clean by removing impurities with the help of membranes and chemicals. Here, water passes through membranes that catch impurities, minerals and contaminations. As the water gets through the layers, it becomes cleaner and cleaner at every stage. At the end of the process, it becomes 100 percent clean free from impurities.

In a RO system, there are various Water treatment Plant Equipments, e.g. motors, pumps, ultrafine filtering membranes, pipes, and valve. The system is reliable and cost-effective. They are useful not only in providing clean drinking water, but there are various industrial applications as well. RO plants treat the feed water for boilers. Since the impurities and minerals get removed, there is relatively less scaling in the boilers. It is also useful in converting sea water into drinking water or cleaning wastewater for recycling.

Benefits of a tailor-made RO system

Water purification is a costly process. Buying off-the-shelf products is not a great idea. Hence, companies go for tailor-made RO systems mounted according to the user requirements. Since these customized plants are also built using high-quality Water treatment Plant Equipments, there is no compromise in the quality and effectiveness.

These systems can cater one-time, temporary or permanent needs of industrial and household establishments. The turnkey projects relieve clients from the hassles of operational issues. Since the systems are installed on the -build and operate- concept, they are cost-effective in a long run. Today, various industrial norms and regulations force companies to install well-operational RO plants for being compliant. The technical advancements in the RO process make it more convenient and manageable. Since expenses on water are increasing every year due to scarcity, there is a high pressure for recycling industrial water using effective RO methods.

It is quite easy to find out water treatment plant providers who can install cost-friendly plants that bring a good return on investment. These providers work on the requirement specs minutely and design an appropriate solution.

There are many numbers of suppliers of water treatment equipments in India and also the sewage, effluent plant manufacturers.

Enliven Your Offices With Interior Plant Services

The human vision, by nature, is more attracted to the green spectra rather than any other color. That’s we always we feel refreshed whenever we look into a bright spot of green or a lush green garden. So if just a glance can bring such harmony, imagine having a workspace with such a lively green environment. Wouldn’t it be wonderful? Well, then why stuff yourself in a grey cubicle and limit your creativity, enhance the liveliness of your indoor landscape with some simple indoor plant care and transform your workspace to achieve maximum productivity.

Now there are actually two ways in which you can turn your office in to a green haven. You can either turn your office in to a mini tropical forest with exclusive live indoor plants, or just decorate the space with artificial trees such as artificial bamboo trees or artificial Ficus trees and still keep the liveliness of a green environment. The choice entirely depends on your interests and hours (if any) that you can actually put into maintaining these plants. Of course both have their advantage and disadvantages, but nevertheless they are sure to bring a serene and harmonious atmosphere for you and your employees.

Having live indoor plants compared to artificial trees might seem a lot of work at first, and it is, but it does have its own advantages. Live indoor plants not only enhance the visual aesthetics of the office space and but also bring in some life in to the building. Imagine entering into a fresh green space with the smell that just invites you stay relaxed and peaceful. Truly live indoor plants can be very refreshing indeed. But you do have to water them quite regularly, and have to clean up and constantly maintain them as well. So if you’re the kind of person who barely has enough time to look away from the computer screen, then these are not for you. But of course you can hire external contractors to maintain the plants, if you are determined about having them.

But a clever and more inexpensive solution would be to have artificial plants and trees around the place that look very much real but don’t require any of the maintenance as the real ones. There are plenty of artificial trees to choose from, which include artificial pine trees, artificial bamboos and even artificial palm trees. The plants and the components are made out of high quality silk that perfectly imitate the texture and color of real plants. And as they require no maintenance they can be placed anywhere you please, even on areas that do not get much light inside the building.

So in conclusion, no matter whether you choose live indoor plants or grand artificial trees, it’s definitely going to look great inside the building. And believe it or not, the more you have the happier you will be. So don’t hesitate, just decorate your workspace with a touch of greenery and enhance the liveliness and productivity of your office.

For Best landscaping designs and services contact 952-934-7666

House Plant Care – Insect Control in Garden Fruit Plantings

Growing fruit in the home garden can be an interesting, fun and rewarding hobby. This does not happen without a great deal of work. House plant care can be very easy with a few tips to keep them healthy.
Control of pests (diseases and insects) is an integral part of the care necessary to obtain good results. Insect infestations reduce yields and lower the quality of harvested garden vegetables and home fruit plantings. All plant parts may be injured by insects. Some insects bore into roots, seeds or stems. Others destroy crops by chewing on the succulent foliage, stems or fruits. Plant diseases are carried by certain insects. Control can be maintained all season by a combination of cultural practices, mechanical control, biological control and chemical applications.
Cultural practices such as pruning, sanitation, variety selection and selecting open, sites for planting are necessary for good pest control.

How to Use the Spray Schedules

Most fungicide (disease control product) and some insecticide (insect control product) applications are effective only if applied preventatively. The timing of these preventive sprays is based on the growth stage of the plant and forms the foundation of the spray charts that follow. In very rainy seasons, sprays may need to be applied more frequently than the schedule given in the following charts. Wet weather favors development of the disease causing organisms and more chemical protection is needed. Also, rains can wash off the fungicides and insecticides. When rain occurs before a spray has dried or if rainfall totals more than 1 inch within 24 hours, the spray should be re-applied. Fungicides provide more benefit when applied before a rain than after, because protection from infection by disease-causing organisms is needed when plant surfaces are wet.

Additional Spray Tips

One of the biggest mistakes home fruit growers make is to allow their trees to grow too tall. If trees are maintained at a manageable height, it is easier to spray them properly, as well as to harvest the fruit. Proper pruning practices reduce the amount of spray needed and permit better coverage. The type of sprayer used depends on the size of the fruit planting. For most plantings of small fruits or for a few small fruit trees, pump-up sprayers are adequate. Trombone-type sprayers are helpful for taller trees. For the increased spray volumes required by larger home orchards, power sprayers are recommended. Honey bees and other pollinating insects must be protected from insecticides, which will kill them. Do not spray fruit plants with insecticides while the plants are in bloom.

Pesticide Safety

Most of the pesticides suggested for use are low-toxicity materials. However, some precautions are needed:
Keep pesticides in the original, labeled container.
Keep pesticides in a locked storage cabinet, away from children or pets.
Read the label each time before you use the product.
Wear rubber gloves, goggles, a long-sleeved shirt, long pants and a hat when mixing and applying pesticides. Refer to the label for required protective gear.
Handle the pesticide carefully when mixing. Avoid breathing dust or vapors. Wash any chemicals off the skin immediately with plenty of water.
Never apply insecticides and fungicides with a sprayer that has been used for weed killers.
Do not spray if it is windy.
Mix only as much as you need. Do not store diluted spray mixtures from one application to the next. They will lose effectiveness and are unsafe.

Multipurpose Fruit Spray

Growers with small fruit plantings may want to consider multipurpose fruit spray products. These materials are widely available, convenient and will serve most pest control purposes. They are mixtures containing a fungicide (captan), and usually two insecticides (malathion and methoxychlor). Multipurpose sprays are produced by several companies and sold under names such as Home Orchard Spray 7, Tree Fruit Spray, All Purpose Fruit Spray7, General Purpose Fruit Spray7 and others. Certain brands contain an additional insecticide, carbaryl (Sevin). Mixtures containing carbaryl should not be applied to apple or pear until 21 days after petal fall, as it causes the fruit to drop.

Sanitation and Cultural Practices

APPLE AND PEAR
Apple and pear trees are subject to serious damage from pests. The following practices will improve the effectiveness of the pesticides and may lessen the need for sprays.
Plant disease-resistant varieties. Varieties resistant to cedar-apple rust, scab and powdery mildew are also available.
Rake and destroy leaves in the fall, if apple scab, pear scab or pear leaf spot are problems. The organisms that cause these diseases overwinter in infected leaves.
For cedar-apple rust control, elimination of the source of spores – cedar trees – is effective but not always possible. Removal of the galls caused by the fungus on cedar trees is helpful. Pruning trees according to recommendations improves control of all ground diseases. In well-pruned trees, air circulation and sunlight penetration are improved. This helps control diseases by promoting rapid drying after rains and dew. Penetration of sprays into the canopy is also better if the trees are well-pruned.
Prune out and destroy all dead or diseased shoots and limbs during the dormant season. This helps reduce fire blight, fruit rots and certain leaf spots, as the organisms that cause these diseases overwinter in the wood.
PEACH, PLUM AND CHERRY
Peach, plum, cherry and other stone fruits are commonly affected by serious pest problems and, as a result, a conscientious spray program is needed. The following sanitation and cultural practices will improve the chances of success and may lessen the need for sprays.
Prune trees according to recommendations, to allow better air circulation and sunlight penetration. This helps control diseases by promoting rapid drying after rains and dew. Penetration of sprays into the canopy is also better if the trees are well-pruned.
Remove the overwintering structure for the brown rot fungus, old mummified fruit left hanging in the tree or on the ground.
Control of black knot of plum and cherry is dependent on removal of the knots before they begin to produce spores. In late winter, prune out and destroy these rough, black swellings or tumors that develop on limbs and twigs.
Avoid planting peach varieties that are highly susceptible to bacterial leaf spot. Examples are Elberta, Halehaven, Rio- Oso-Gem and Sunhigh. Chemical control of this disease is very limited.
GRAPE
Most home grape plantings will require a preventive schedule of pesticides, since certain pests such as black rot can completely destroy a crop of fruit. However, the following sanitation and cultural practices will reduce the need for pesticides.
Keep vines well-pruned according to recommendations, to prevent overgrowth of vines and dense canopy. Pruning promotes air circulation and sunlight penetration, thus more rapid drying after rains and dew. Penetration of sprays into the foliar canopy is also better if the vines are well-pruned.
Remove mummified berries (shriveled, dry, raisin-like). Clusters on the vines as well as those that have fallen to the ground should be removed. Also, destroy infected canes that have been pruned off. For control of grape root borer, mounding soil makes it difficult for larvae to reach the roots or adults to emerge. Mound some soil 1 foot high for 12 feet around each vine between early and mid-June.
STRAWBERRY
An intensive, preventive spray program is generally not needed on strawberry. Treatments can usually be made on an as-needed basis. The following sanitation and cultural practices will reduce the need for pesticides.

Bed renovation immediately after harvest is crucial to managing pest problems. Renovation involves narrowing rows, mowing leaves, removing weeds and fertilization. Rake and destroy cut-off leaves and stems after renovation.
Maintain narrow rows throughout the growing season (maximum 18 inches wide), to maintain good sunlight and air penetration of the canopy. This provides good berry formation and rapid drying after rains and dew.
Plant varieties with resistance to red stele and leaf spot. Where anthracnose is a problem, consider the resistant varieties Delmarvel and Sweet Charlie.
Control weeds throughout the growing season. Weeds increase disease by shading the plants and by interfering with air circulation. Weeds also harbor many insect and mite pests.
Mulch with straw before berries begin to lie on the ground, to reduce gray mold and leather rot (fruit rots).

Safe Handling of Insecticides

Home gardeners can control insect pests with reasonable safety by observing these safety rules:
Keep insecticides in the original, labeled container.
Keep insecticides in a locked storage container.
Read the label each time you use the insecticide.
Measure the amount to be mixed carefully.
Do not exceed the recommended rate of application.
Handle the insecticide carefully when mixing to avoid splashing of liquid concentrates and billowing of dusts and powders.
Wear protective clothing and other personal protective equipment as dictated by the label.
To protect yourself when mixing insecticides, it is suggested that protective clothing and equipment, such as chemical-resistant gloves, a long-sleeved shirt, long pants and protective eyewear, be worn.
Wash all insecticides off the skin immediately, using plenty of soap and water.
Avoid breathing the spray mist or vapor.
Always mix insecticides outdoors near a source of water.
Clean up any spilled materials to prevent children from entering a heavily contaminated area.
Apply insecticides to only those plants listed on the label.
Observe the time intervals between the last application and harvest.

The severity and type of pest problems on garden vegetables usually vary considerably from year to year. During most growing seasons, consistent production of high quality vegetables is assured only with the use of pesticides for insect control. This is not to suggest that vegetables cannot be grown without pesticides by using nonchemical methods, but it will usually take more effort on the part of the gardener.